Whether these are natural or powered, they remove smoke from the building. Inlet ventilators, dampers and ductwork are also often integrated into the scheme.
These prevent the movement of smoke and heat from one area to another. They take the form either of physical barriers such as smoke curtains or fire curtains, or as pressure differential systems, also known as pressurisation systems.
Enclosed or underground car parks normally require ventilation systems to assist firefighting operations. These systems generally also prevent the build-up of carbon monoxide during normal day to day use of the car park. The system elements may include louvres, dampers, powered smoke extraction units, induction fans and impulse fans.
Protecting means-of-escape stairs in residential and fire-fighting stairs.
Pressurisation systems or stairwell pressurisation systems protect escape routes and fire-fighting shafts against the ingress of smoke by maintaining the pressure within the escape route higher than that in the adjacent spaces.